The Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings: Proceedings of a Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum: 24–28 April 1995

This quantity collects thirty-one papers via a global staff of specialists. Grouped into 4 subject parts: "Wood technological know-how and Technology," "History of Panel-Manufacturing Techniques," "History of the Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings," and "Current ways to the Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings," the papers spotlight a large choice of philosophies and paintings methods.

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The streaky, obvious primuersel is noticeable on an infrared reflectogram. within the north this tradition replaced through the 16th century. The underdrawing will be made at once onto the skinny white floor, on most sensible of which a translucent insulating layer, the primuersel, will be positioned. This primuersel would go away the drawing obvious for additional improvement within the portray strategy. it really is seen, then, that the primuersel used to be utilized within the artist’s studio, now not via the witter. Karel van Mander wrote in 1605 that his predecessors flooring their panels thicker than in his time and that in a while they planed or scraped the skin as gentle as they can (Miedema 1973:256–57). The means of Hieronymus Bosch (ca. 1450–1516) is defined through van Mander as a style utilized by many different outdated masters: Bosch drew his photos at the white flooring, putting over them a skinny translucent, fleshcolored primuersel that might permit the floor to play a task within the accomplished portray. the truth that the outdated masters did certainly draw at once at the flooring, utilizing a skinny, flesh-colored layer in oil as an isolation layer, has been duly proven by means of extensive experiences in this topic (Federspiel 1985). 39 it's this pigmented oil layer that van Mander named primuersel (Fig. 25) (Plesters 1983; Coremans and Thissen 1962; Sonnenburg and Preusser 1979). forty In 1620 de Mayerne gave recommendation on priming a panel. If one desires to paint on wooden, he wrote, it's the customized first to measurement with chalk. you'll be able to combine a bit honey in it on the way to hinder cracking; yet in de Mayerne’s opinion it's higher to not dimension wooden an excessive amount of. Then one may still follow a great and powerful floor (imprimeure) in oil, with a knife or horn spatula, in 168 Wa d u m order to shut the pores of the wooden. forty-one An English manuscript from 1622 by means of Peacham describes an identical technique (Talley 1981:61–71). forty two In 1692 Wilhelm Beurs wrote flooring may still first be utilized to the panel with a vulnerable glue combined with chalk. After this, the panel can be scraped back that allows you to make it even and aircraft, in order that the grain remains stuffed (van de Graaf 1958). a similar 12 months that Beurs released his guide, the Englishman Marshall Smith gave the advice to use six to 8 layers of whiting combined with a robust dimension. After drying, the layer may be smoothed “with a Joyners Palm, then water plain’d with a rag dipt in water” (Talley 1981:375–96). ultimately, an unspecified priming is utilized prior to a layer of coloured oil imprimatur. In France in 1757, Perteny gave the recommendation to use a layer of Handschuhleim (hide glue) on either side of the panels, on best of which the floor may be utilized (Arnold 1826:101). The recipes are in keeping with what one truly sees on 16th- and seventeenth-century northern eu panels. within the northern Netherlands, more and more much less floor used to be used, in order that occasionally merely the holes among the extra reported components of the grain within the oak panels have been crammed. This minimum grounding triggered the grain of panels painted within the 17th century to be in part obvious throughout the paint movie (Gifford 1983).

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