By Margret Kentgens-Craig
The Bauhaus university used to be based in Weimar in 1919 by way of the German architect Walter Gropius, moved to Dessau in 1925 and to Berlin in 1932, and was once dissolved in 1933 via Ludwig Mies van der Rohe lower than political duress. even though it existed for an insignificant fourteen years and boasted fewer than 1,300 scholars, its effect is felt during the global in different structures, artistic endeavors, items, thoughts, and curricula.
After the Bauhaus’s final in 1933, lots of its protagonists moved to the U.S., the place their attractiveness needed to be cultivated. the main to figuring out the yankee reception of the Bauhaus is to be stumbled on now not within the émigré good fortune tales or the recognized 1938 Bauhaus exhibition on the Museum of recent paintings, yet during America’s early touch with the Bauhaus. during this e-book Margret Kentgens-Craig indicates that the celebrity of the Bauhaus in the United States used to be the outcome not just of the inherent characteristics of its suggestions and items, but additionally of a distinct congruence of cultural provide and insist, of a constant move of knowledge, and of fine-tuned advertising and marketing. therefore the background of the yankee reception of the Bauhaus within the Nineteen Twenties and Nineteen Thirties foreshadows the styles of fame-making that grew to become average of the post-World struggle II paintings global. The move of creative, highbrow, and pedagogical options from one cultural context to a different is a technique of transformation and integration. In featuring a case research of this approach, the booklet additionally offers clean insights into the German-American cultural background of the interval from 1919 to 1936.
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Additional resources for The Bauhaus and America: First Contacts, 1919-1936
This stream intended a nearly entire finish to the workshops’ actions and a redefinition in their objective as subservient to the dept of inside layout and structure. the percentage of 151 INSTITUTIONAL personality visitor academics and artists used to be diminished with no compromising the 3rd director’s inventive aspirations. After the Bauhaus used to be compelled to maneuver to Berlin in 1932, it used to be run as a personal establishment. Gropius’s postulate of architecture’s primacy used to be simply an awesome assertion of goal through the Bauhaus’s first 8 years. In 1924, Marcel Breuer, Farkas Molnár, and Georg Muche submitted a written thought to discovered a separate division of structure. the dep. was once to provide essentially orientated classes and to accomplish primary examine, together with the advance of norms and typologies. 132 still, structure on the Bauhaus remained synonymous with the paintings performed by way of Gropius’s inner most place of work, positioned because it was once within the Dessau Bauhaus construction. in accordance with Gropius, the lengthy procrastination in setting up the structure division, which had already been proposed in 1919, was once as a result have to provide primary education to destiny structure scholars. it might even be that he observed his workplace as an extension of the Bauhaus. Marcel Franciscono cites different explanations: there are many visible the reason why the projected visionary architectural works have been by no means undertaken on the Bauhaus [Weimar] . . . : the very fast awareness that they—and the best of the natural society they symbolized—could have little useful factor within the current paintings, the incompatibility of the Einheitskunstwerk with the stylistic course of contemporary structure on a complete, and never least, the sheer loss of capability and of scholar and college curiosity in or adequate potential for the paintings firstly whilst such an idea used to be nonetheless possible sufficient to be undertaken. 133 It was once no longer until eventually 1927 that structure was once brought as a customary direction. It was once institutionalized as a division in 1928 and have become the focal point of the schooling as of 1930. As is clear from his 1960 remark, the final director appeared the Bauhaus as an structure academy and referred to as it “for decades some of the most very important structure faculties in Europe. ”134 there has been no resembling the Bauhaus within the usa, a indisputable fact that made it tricky to categorise and describe the college right here. Its polyvalence inside of a unified constitution has allowed a variety of curiosity teams to acknowledge “their” Bauhaus in a few fragment of this system. because the Bauhaus’s status grew and as more and more diversified teams became interested within the college, its unified snapshot started to crumble. The tendency to appro- 131 Walter Gropius, “Program of the Staatliche Bauhaus in Weimar, April 1919,” quoted in Wingler, The Bauhaus: Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago, 31. 132 in accordance 133 Marcel 134 Ludwig to C. Schädlich, “Die Beziehungen des Bauhaus zu den USA,” sixty one. Franciscono, Walter Gropius and the production of the Bauhaus in Weimar, 137, n.